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Use these online reference sources to find background information on your topic. These sources include encyclopedias, dictionaries, directories, and more. General works are listed first, followed by works on specific subjects, grouped by Library of Congress Classification.

Top Resources

A collection of reference material including encyclopedias and dictionaries that cover a wide range of subject areas in the Humanities, Social Sciences, Business, Education, and Sciences.
Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL) is a collection of subject-specific encyclopedias, ranging in topics from global warming to urban studies.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) is a continuously updated Open Access online encyclopedia containing thousands of entries on the lives and works of philosophers.
This online encyclopedia contains the complete and unedited contents of the 12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia, which was originally published between 1901 and 1906. Subjects are often treated in greater depth here than in later scholarship, and the work is particularly noteworthy for its extensive biographical content. JewishEncyclopedia.com includes over 15,000 articles and illustrations.
This site is based on the former Canadian Mennonite Encyclopedia Online from the Mennonite Historical Society of Canada, a projected conversion of the print publicationThe Mennonite Encyclopedia, in 4 vols. with Supplement (1955-59, 1990). With the participation of two new partners -- the Mennonite Brethren Historical Commission and the Mennonite Church USA Historical Committee -- the scope of the project is expanding to include new content from North America and around the world.
Free Resource
The New Pauly Online is a dual-language (English and German) reference database, that includes all the volumes of Brill's Der Neue Pauly. This encyclopedia is a standard work for the study of the ancient world, and is interdisciplinary in nature.
An online version, in progress, of the five-volume Encyclopedia of Ukraine (University of Toronto Press, 1984-93).
The Historical Atlas of Canada was published in English and French versions, and was a three-volume collaborative publishing project, finished in 1993. In 1998, the Concise Historical Atlas of Canada was published, a selection of plates from the original volumes, with new essays connecting them. Both of these atlases are available in the University of Winnipeg Library in print as well.
The Statesman's Yearbook provides current and concise information on global affairs, with coverage of government, history, and social policy for more than 190 nations.
Access to this resource is no longer available. For other reference works on similar topics see: Oxford Reference Online, Oxford Handbooks Online, Gale Virtual Reference Library, and Sage Knowledge.
The PARLINE database (a derivative of parliaments on-Line) has been developed by the Inter-Parliamentary Union and is regularly updated on the basis of official information provided by national Parliaments. For all countries where a national legislature exists, the database provides: general information on each of the parliament's chambers; description of the electoral system; results of the most recent elections; archive of past elections results; information on the presidency of each chamber; information on the mandate and status of members of parliament.
Le Petit Robert is an authoritative French dictionary that contains all content found in the print work of the same name, as well as additional content.
A master index to biographical and critical essays on over 165,000 authors that appear in over 130 print literary series published by the Gale Group. The library subscribes to a number of these titles.
Ile
Biographies and bibliographies of over 1,000 Quebecois authors.
World of Science contains budding encyclopedias of astronomy, chemistry, physics, and scientific biography. This resource has been assembled over more than a decade by Internet encyclopedist Eric W. Weisstein with assistance from the Internet community.

Mathworld is an expanded version of the print publication The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics. The website is continuously updated to include new material and incorporate new discoveries.

The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) is a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and fern allies.
Free Resource
A comprehensive and very intelligibly written health encyclopedia, with a medical atlas.
Index Translationum is a free online international bibliography of book translations. This resource contains more than 1,900,000 entries covering titles published in all disciplines such as biology, art, history, and politics.

Other Resources (in alphabetical order)

A comprehensive reference source on the theory, techniques, and applications of the various forensic sciences.
Le Grand & Collins is a bilingual (French and English) online dictionary.
International Encyclopedia of the First World War is an English-language virtual reference work on the First World War.
Free Resource
The Labour Studies Index offers 6534 citations of journal articles, books, book chapters, theses, and other literature
Free Resource

Macaulay Library is a digital archive accessible to the public. The Library contains the largest collection of animal sounds as well as a video library of animal behavior.

Free Resource